Weight loss surgery is also known as scientifically bariatric surgery. The main objective of weight loss surgery is to make changes in the digestive system’s functions. There are various weight loss procedures. All of them lead to weight loss by limiting food consumption, controlling the absorption of nutrients, and some weight loss procedures result in both. Weight loss procedure is part of the overall treatment including nutrition guidelines and physical exercises.
When it is advised
When the patient faces life-threatening health issues because of being overweight Bariatric surgery is suggested. Some of the health issues include heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, type-2 diabetes, and fatty liver. The results are satisfactory when combined with proper diet and exercise habits as suggested by the doctor.
There are some general medical guidelines followed by doctors for weight-loss surgery and it mainly focuses on body mass index (BMI). Body mass index is measured by using the height and weight of the person. Weight loss surgery is mostly suggested for people with a BMI of 40 or higher.
These are some conditions depending on which weight loss procedures are performed:
- BMI of 35 or higher
- Minimum of one obesity-related medical issue
- Minimum of six months of weight loss attempts under proper supervision
- Serious obese-related medical conditions with a 40 or higher BMI
Even if the BMI is not appropriate, but the medical condition is severe because of obesity, any one of the weight loss surgeries may be suggested by the doctor.
Weight loss surgery options
There are four types of weight-loss surgeries in practice and they are as follows:
This surgery is also known as ‘Roux-en-Y’ gastric bypass or RYGB and is not reversible. The surgery leaves a smaller part of the stomach to hold the consumed food. A small part of the small intestine is cut and sewed along the stomach pouch. The food you eat bypasses the rest of the stomach directly to the small intestine. After this procedure, both food consumption and nutrient absorption are reduced.
The surgery follows 80% removal of the stomach leaving a tube-like pouch. This long pipe-like stomach does not have the capacity to hold a lot of food. So the person eats very little. There is only less production of the appetite-regulating hormone ghrelin, therefore, lessening the desire to eat. There is no rerouting of the intestine included in the procedure.
Adjustable Gastric Band
The adjustable gastric band covers the upper portion of the stomach. Wrapping around the band shrinks the stomach space, providing similar results as other surgeries such as gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. It is a reversible process unlike the other procedures but gives slower weight loss results.
Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch
This is an extremely effective procedure under weight loss surgery options. It is a two-part surgery. The first step is similar to that of sleeve gastrectomy and the second surgery connects the intestine end part to the duodenum, near the stomach. After the second surgery as a result of the duodenal switch and biliopancreatic diversion, the food bypass majority of the intestine directly.